Formulas of Mensuration in Maths: Mensuration concept from basics are explained below with important mensuration formulas and properties of geometrical figures.
What is mensuration?
Mensuration is a branch of which, where measurement of various geometrical shapes. The measurements are area, volume, curved surface area, lateral surface area, total surface area, etc.
Types of Geometrical Shapes:
There are two types of geometrical shapes in mensuration. They are
2-Dimensional Geometrical Shape
It is the shape formed by joining three or more straight lines in a plane. 2D geometrical shapes have length and breadth. Here measurements are area, perimeter only.
The units of measurements are
Area: cm², M²,km2, miles².
3-Dimensional Geometrical Shape:
It is the shape formed by joining the number of planes or surfaces. 3D- geometric shape has length, breadth, and height(or depth).
Here measurements are volume, curved surface area (CSA), lateral surface area (LSA) and total surface area (TSA).
Some Important Terms in 2D Geometric Shapes
It is the amount of space inside the geometrical figure.
It is the sum of lengths of all sides of a geometrical figure.
Mensuration 2D Formulas in Maths
Area of triangle =(1/2)×base×height
Perimeter = a+b+c
Area = ½×b×h (or)
Right Isosceles Triangle
area= (½)× b2 or ¼(hypotenuse)2
Right Angled Triangle
Here, d1, d2 are diagonal and s= (a+b+c+d)/2
⇒ d2/2, here d is diagonal
Perimeter = 4s
a = πr2 or πd2/4 d=2r
Here d=diameter and r=radius
Perimeter=2πr (or) πd
A=Πr2/2 (or) Πd2/8
p=πr + 2r (or) (36/7)r
For Equivalent Triangle having Inside Circle or Inscribed Circle
In-radius of inscribed circle=a/2√3
Area of incircle= (π /12)a2
For Equilateral Triangle thing Circumcircle
circumradius of circum circle=a/√3
Area of circum circle= (π/3)a2
Some important Formulas for Areas of Regular Polygons
|No. of sides||Regular polygon||Area|
|3||Equilateral triangle||0.433 s2|
Sector of Circle
θ=angle in radius
Area of sector=lr/2 (or) (θ/360)×πr2
length of Arc l=θr (or) (θ/360) ×2πr
r is the inner radius
R is the outer radius
Area A= π(R2-r2)
If r is in the radius of a triangle then
Area= r x s
If R is circumradius of a triangle
Area of triangle=1/2 absinθ
3D units of Measurements are
volume:cm3 (or) m3
LSA: m2 (or) cm2
CSA: m2 (or) cm2
TSA: m2 (or) cm2
Some important Terms in 3D Geometrical Shapes
Volume: It is the total space included inside the 3D shape.
Volume= area of the base x height
LSA (Lateral Surface Area): It is the area of all vertical faces excluding the area of bases of the 3D shape.
Eg: cube, cuboid.
CSA(Curved Surface Area): It is the area of all curved regions of a 3D- shape.
Eg: sphere, cylinder, cone, hemisphere.
TSA(Total Surface Area): It is the sum of areas of all the surfaces of a 3D shape.
Eg: cube, cuboid, cylinder, cone, sphere, hemisphere.
Mensuration 3D Formulas in Maths
Curved Surface Area(CSA)= 2πrh
Total Surface Area= 2πr(h+r)
Area of base= area of top= πr2
volume= (4/3)× πr3
Curved Surface Area of Sphere= Total Surface Area of Sphere= 4πr2
Curved surface area= 2πr2
Total surface area of hemisphere= 3πr2
Right Circular Cone
Frustum of a cone
Volume= (Π/3)(r2 +rR+R2 )h
Mensuration Formulas for Prism in maths
Prism is a polyhedron that is formed by joining lateral faces of two polygonal bases that are parallel to each other. These lateral faces are perpendicular to their polygonal bases.
Prism Formulas in General
Surface area of a prism= (Lateral Surface Area)+(2 x Base Area)
Lateral surface area = perimeter of base x slant height
Volume= base area x height
Volume of rectangular prism= l×b×h
Total surface area of rectangular prism=2(l×b+b×h+l×h)
olVume= ½ abh
Here a= apothem length; b= base ; h=height
Prism example problem with a solution
Question: The base of a right prism is a triangle and the lengths of its sides are 15cm, 25cm and 30 cm. The height of the prism is 10 cm. Find the volume, lateral surface area, and total surface area of prism?
Let ‘s’ be the semi-perimeter of the base of the prism s=(15+25+30)/2 = 35 cm
Volume of the prism=(area of base) x height
=187 x 10
=1870 cu. Cm
The lateral surface area of prism= (perimeter of base x slant height)
perimeter of base=(15+25+30)=70
LSA=(70 x 10)= 700
TSA of triangular prism=( LSA + 2 × base area)
=(700 + 2 × 187)
=1074 cu. cm
Mensuration Formulas for a pyramid
The pyramid is a polyhedron where lateral faces are triangular formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point called the apex.
A pyramid with n sided base has
- Verticles (n+1)
- Faces (n+1)
- Edges 2n
Pyramid Formulas in General
Volume=(1/3) × (base area) x height
Lateral surface area= ½ (perimeter of base) x lateral height
lateral height =
a=base of square/rectangle/triangle
Total surface area of pyramid= lateral surface area+area of base
Volume = (¹⁄3)×a²×h
Total surface area= 2as+a2
Volume of triangular pyramid=(¹⁄6 )×a×b×h
Total surface area of triangular pyramid= ½ ab + 3/2 as
Total surface area=√3a²